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Table 1 Summary of stem cell responses to various mechanical stimuli

From: Force-dependent cell signaling in stem cell differentiation

Cell type Response/regulation Mechanical stimuli References
Adult stem cells    
MSCs Osteogenic differentiation Applied forces (cyclic/static) [69]
   Increase cell area [2]
   Increase in substrate rigidity [1]
   Activate RhoA [68, 69]
   Random nanotopography [96]
  Chondrogenic/adipogenic differentiation Decrease cell area [2, 64]
   Decrease in substrate rigidity [1]
   Inhibition of RhoA [65]
  Myogenic/smooth muscle cell differentiation Applied force (for example, cyclic strain) [98]
   Intermediate substrate rigidity [46]
   Cell shape: activation of Rac1 [64]
  Neurogenesis Soft substrate rigidity [1]
   Anisotropic (line) topography [4]
  Enhanced endocytosis Pillar topography [99]
ASCs Myogenic differentiation Intermediate substrate rigidity [46]
  Chondrogenic differentiation RhoA inhibitor [93]
NSCs/NPCs Support neuronal differentiation Suppression of RhoA and Cdc42 activity [67]
   Anisotropic topography [92]
Embryonic stem cells Increase spreading Applied forces [48]
  Increase viability upon dissociation Inhibition of ROCK activity or actomyosin contractility [60, 61]
  Neuronal differentiation Anisotropic (line) topography [94]
  Osteogenic differentiation Pillar topography [95]
  1. ACS, adipose-derived stem cell; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; NPC, neural progenitor cell; NSC, neural stem cell; ROCK, Rho-associated kinase.