- Open Access
Fluid-induced, shear stress-regulated extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteinase genes expression on human annulus fibrosus cells
© Chou et al. 2016
- Received: 22 October 2015
- Accepted: 9 February 2016
- Published: 27 February 2016
Mechanical loading plays an important role in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis as well as pathogenesis of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The human annulus fibrosus (hAF) in the IVD is subjected to contact shear stress during body motion. However, the effects of shear stress on hAF cells remain unclear. This aim of the study was to investigate the expression of the ECM (COLI, COLIII and aggrecan) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-3 and ADAMTS-4) genes in hAF cells following fluid-induced shear stress in a custom-fabricated bio-microfluidic device.
hAF cells were harvested from degenerated disc tissues in routine spine surgery, staged by magnetic resonance imaging, expanded in monolayers and then seeded onto the bio-microfluidic device. The experimental groups were subjected to 1 and 10 dyne/cm2 shear stress for 4 h, and no shear stress was applied to the control group. We used real time polymerase chain reaction for gene expression.
Shear stress of 1 dyne/cm2 exerted an anabolic effect on COLI and COLIII genes and catabolic effects on the aggrecan gene, while 10 dyne/cm2 had an anabolic effect on the COLI gene and a catabolic effect on COLIII and aggrecan genes. The COLI gene was upregulated in a stress-dependent manner. Expression of MMP-1 was significantly higher in the 10 dyne/cm2 group compared to the control group (P < 0.05), but was similar in the control and 1 dyne/cm2 groups. Expression of MMP-3 and ADAMTS-4 were similar in all three groups.
Taken together, hAF cells responded to shear stress. The findings help us understand and clarify the effects of shear stress on IVD degeneration as well as the development of a new therapeutic strategy for IVD degeneration.
- Intervertebral disc
- Annulus fibrosus
- Mechanical loading
- Shear stress
- Bio-microfluidic device
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is composed of two distinct components [1, 2], the central gelatinous nucleus pulposus (NP) and the surrounding outer annulus fibrosus (AF). Movement of the spine subjects the bony structure of the spine and the IVD to mechanical loading [2, 3]. Degeneration of the IVD, which has been identified as one of the major sources of back pain , has a complex pathogenesis [1, 5]. A number of mechanical factors such as tension , compression , shear stress  and vibration  as well as other factors such as aging, genetic and systemic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IVD degeneration .
IVD degeneration is characterized by increased degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by locally produced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanase which belongs to the ADAMTS family (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) [1, 9]. Collagens and aggrecans, which are the major components of the ECM in the IVD, are synthesized by the IVD, and broken down by MMPs and aggrecanases  to achieve dynamic equilibrium.
In vitro experiments demonstrated that proper mechanical loading plays an important role in the function and metabolism of IVD cells [2, 6–8, 10]. Epidemiologic studies  also revealed that mechanical overloading resulting from bending, twisting and heavy lifting were important risk factors for back pain, IVD degeneration and herniation [5, 11].
IVD degeneration has been shown to include different types of human AF tears or defects (peripheral, circumferential or radiating) . Although AF degeneration seems to occur following NP degeneration , biochemical changes in AF are accompanied by IVD degeneration, suggesting that AF may also play an important role in IVD degeneration , particularly the initiation of IVD degeneration.
During movement of the spine, the IVD and human AF (hAF) are exposed to multiple, complex, three-dimensional mechanical loading forces, including compression, tension, lateral bending, vibration, shear stress or a combination of these [5, 14]. The change in intradiscal hydrostatic pressure during spine movement also impacts tissue fluid influx and efflux within the IVD . Consequently, hAF cells are constantly subjected to fluid-induced shear stress even without body motion . Fluid-induced shear stress was defined as the tangential component of frictional forces generated at a surface by the flow of a viscous fluid, reported by Chiu and Chien . Although there is growing awareness of the role of mechanical loading on the metabolism of human, caprine and rabbit AF cells [6, 8, 17], the impact of shear stress on hAF cells has yet to be explored.
We hypothesized that shear stress might play a vital role in the expression of ECM and metalloproteinase genes in hAF cells. We investigated the effects of fluid-induced shear stress on the expression of ECM genes (COLI, COLIII and aggrecan), and MMP genes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and ADAMTS-4) of hAF cells harvested from degenerated disc tissues in a custom-fabricated bio-microfluidic device.
Patient demographic data
L 45 listhesis
L 45 interbody fusion
L 345 listhesis
L 345 interbody fusion
L 45 listhesis
L 45 interbody fusion
L 345 listhesis
L 345 interbody fusion
L 45 listhesis
L 45 interbody fusion
L 45 listhesis
L 45 interbody fusion
When hAF cells from degenerated disc tissue (passage 0) were 70–80 % confluent, cells were detached with 0.25 % trypsin–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Gibco BRL), washed twice with PBS, centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 4 min, and cultured in T-75 flasks as described previously (passage 1). When hAF cells reached 80 % confluence, they were harvested and expanded in T-75 flasks (passage 2). Passage 2 of hAF cells which were 80 % confluent were detached with trypsin, washed twice with PBS and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen in FBS with 10 % dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). All experiments were performed with cells from passages 2 and 3 in order to avoid de-differentiation during culture over long periods (p < 6) .
Rhodamine 6G was used as a tracing dye to ensure that the flow field on the microfluidic device was uniform and that the flow of the medium into the cell culture region was homogeneous. The flow field in our custom-fabricated chip has been shown to be uniform and steady . Human mesenchymal stem cells (Lonza, PT-2501) were used to test biocompatibility in further experiments.
Fibronectin (Fn) (bovine; Sigma-Aldrich) was diluted in PBS to a working concentration of 100 μg/mL. Diluted Fn (500 μg) was loaded smoothly onto the custom-fabricated bio-microfluidic device and incubated at 37 °C for at least 1 h. The Fn solution was then removed, and the device washed twice with PBS.
Primers used in the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis
The relative expression of different genes in the different groups was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Tukey’s post-hoc test. P < 0.05 indicated statistical significance.
hAF cells were attached on the Fn-coated bio-microfludic device after overnight incubation at 37 °C, and had a similar morphology to cells cultured in a dish. When the cells were ready, the whole bio-microfluidic device was set up by assembling the laser-cut dishes with the microfluidic chips using vacuum force. Different levels of shear stress were applied (Figs. 3 and 4). Additionally, the morphology of cells seeded on the bio-microfluidic device remained unchanged after being subjected to 1 or 10 dyne/cm2 shear stress for 4 h.
Expression of the MMP-1 gene was 2.9 ± 0.76-fold higher in cells subjected to 10 dyne/cm2 shear stress compared to the control group. Expression of the MMP-1 gene was similar between the control and 1 dyne/cm2 groups. There was no significant difference in the expression of the MMP-3 and ADAMTS-4 genes between the three groups.
The above results suggested that 1 dyne/cm2 exerted an anabolic effect on the COLI and COLIII genes but a catabolic effect on the aggrecan gene. It was also possible that 10 dyne/cm2 shear stress exerted an anabolic effect on the COLI gene but a catabolic effect on the COLIII and aggrecan genes.
hAF cells are exposed to shear stress during normal physiologic movement of the spine , and the mechanical stimulation is important for regulating homeostasis of the AF matrix [2, 3, 6–8, 10, 14]. The disc along with AF tissues which serves as a load-bearing structure is exposed to different types of daily recurring mechanic loads including tension, compression, and shear stress . All these types of mechanical loading may occur simultaneously, resulting in a complex combination loading situation in vivo . Disc cell types and species, loading types, frequency, magnitude and duration are among the key factors thought to play important roles in AF-ECM homeostasis .
MMP-1, which belongs to the subclass of collagenases, has been reported to be the most common MMP in the degenerated disc, with 91 % positive staining . MMP-1 activity is highest against collagen type III (> I > II) . Collagen types I and III are distributed in the AF . MMP-3, which plays a major role in disc degeneration, has a broad substrate specificity, and has been shown to degrade proteoglycans, lamin, Fn, gelatins, and collagen types II, III, IV, and V . Degenerative disc is characterized by an upregulation of degradative enzymes such as MMPs, along with a declining ability to produce ECM [4, 5]. Both MMP-1 and -3 have also been found in the AF in the degenerated disc, and this may contribute to the pathogenesis of AF matrix degeneration.
Besides type I and III collagens, the other major ECM component of the AF is proteoglycans, particularly aggrecan. Aggrecan is substituted with several negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which are responsible for its water-binding capacity [1, 5]. ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1), which is a key proteinase for the breakdown of aggrecan, has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AF degeneration. Several studies reported that mechanical stimuli may impact proteoglycan metabolism in hAF cells. Aggrecan gene expression was inhibited in hAF cells subjected to 10 % cyclic tensile strain at a frequency of 1 Hz for 24 h , while 0.4 MPa of compressive stress at 1 Hz for 2 h twice a day up to 7 days had catabolic effects on aggrecan gene expression . Our results indicated that shear stress of 1 and 10 dyne/cm2 resulted in downregulation of aggrecan gene expression.
Shear stress of 1 and 10 dyne/cm2 also affected the expression of COLI in a stress-dependent manner, while the expression of the MMP-3 and ADAMT-4 genes remained unchanged in cells subjected to shear stress of 1 and 10 dyne/cm2 compared to the control group. It is possible that, in addition to MMP-1, -3 and ADAMT-4, other degradative enzymes or mechano-transduction pathways may be involved in the pathogenesis of ECM metabolism following shear stress. Shear stress of 1 dyne/cm2 seemed to have anabolic effects on the expression of the collagen I and III genes in degenerated hAF cells. However, a higher shear stress (10 dyne/cm2) exerted an anabolic effect on COLI expression, and a catabolic effect on COLIII and aggrecan expression.
Mechanically, AF cells bear shear stress during bending or twisting of the trunk; but few studies have investigated the effects of shear stress on the expression of different genes in hAF cells subjected to stress. hAF cells have been shown to respond to laminar shear stress by increasing intracellular calcium levels . Our data differed from a previous report which showed that the expression of the MMP-1 and -3 genes was upregulated in rabbit tendon cells following 1 dyne/cm2 fluid-induced shear stress for 6 h in a specially designed multi-slide flow device . This difference could be due to species variation and differences in the magnitude of force at the cellular level.
Previous reports [11, 26] indicated that excessive loading such as heavy lifting, bending and twisting may play an important role in increased incidence of disc degeneration and herniation. Neidlinger-Wilke et al.  reported a baseline intradiscal pressure measuring around 0.1–0.2 MPa under conditions of supine rest, due to the combined effect of muscle loads and osmotic potential of the disc. Shear stress was estimated at 1600 NT at the L5–S1 disc level while stooping or weight lifting . The shear stress applied in our study (1 and 10 dyne) was lower than that seen under physiological conditions. The reason for this was that AF cells may de-attach from the bio-microfludic in vitro following much higher shear stress. The in vitro situation is therefore different from that in vivo with muscles, ligaments and facet articular joint supports.
Our study had a number of limitations which should be considered. Firstly, our results were based on a cell-in-channel model, which did not reflect the real three-dimensional disc environment in vivo during body motion. Secondly, the magnitude of shear stress that hAF cells are subjected to during body motion still needs to be measured, which would validate our results. Thirdly, cells may be detached following fluid-induced shear stress in our chip, which may interfere with our results. Moreover, we still lacked the results of gene expression in healthy hAF cells harvested from discs in post-mortem young donors without prior systemic diseases or spine trauma, which could provide the real control results and allow us to compare between healthy and degenerated discs to understand the role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of disc degeneration.
In summary, we demonstrated that the expressions of ECM and metalloproteinase genes in hAF cells were influenced by fluid-induced shear stress. Although not all aspects of alterations of the mechanical environment of the disc can be extrapolated from the in vivo situation, our results may provide better understanding of the physiology of the degenerated discs and the pathogenesis of disc degeneration following shear stress.
Fluid-induced shear stress regulated ECM and MMP genes expression in hAF cells. The study may clarify the role of shear stress in the patho-mechanism of disc degeneration as well as the development of a new therapeutic strategy for IVD degeneration.
The authors wish to thank Shin-Yi Huang from the Biostatistics Task Force, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, for her statistical assistance. We thank the Medical Science & Technology Building of Taipei Veterans General Hospital for providing experimental space and facilities. This work was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (NSC102-2314-B-07).
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Freemont AJ, Watkins A, Le Maitre C, Jeziorska M, Hoyland JA. Current understanding of cellular and molecular events in intervertebral disc degeneration: implications for therapy. J Pathol. 2002;196(4):374–9. doi:10.1002/path.1050.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Setton LA, Chen J. Mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc and relevance to disc degeneration. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88 Suppl 2:52–7. doi:10.2106/jbjs.f.00001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elfervig MK, Minchew JT, Francke E, Tsuzaki M, Banes AJ. IL-1beta sensitizes intervertebral disc annulus cells to fluid-induced shear stress. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82(2):290–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freemont AJ. The cellular pathobiology of the degenerate intervertebral disc and discogenic back pain. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48(1):5–10. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ken396.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Urban JP, Roberts S. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003;5(3):120–30.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sowa G, Coelho P, Vo N, Bedison R, Chiao A, Davies C, et al. Determination of annulus fibrosus cell response to tensile strain as a function of duration, magnitude, and frequency. J Orthop Res. 2011;29(8):1275–83. doi:10.1002/jor.21388.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Korecki CL, Kuo CK, Tuan RS, Iatridis JC. Intervertebral disc cell response to dynamic compression is age and frequency dependent. J Orthop Res. 2009;27(6):800–6. doi:10.1002/jor.20814.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamazaki S, Banes AJ, Weinhold PS, Tsuzaki M, Kawakami M, Minchew JT. Vibratory loading decreases extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in rabbit annulus cells. Spine J. 2002;2(6):415–20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Le Maitre CL, Freemont AJ, Hoyland JA. Localization of degradative enzymes and their inhibitors in the degenerate human intervertebral disc. J Pathol. 2004;204(1):47–54. doi:10.1002/path.1608.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kasra M, Goel V, Martin J, Wang ST, Choi W, Buckwalter J. Effect of dynamic hydrostatic pressure on rabbit intervertebral disc cells. J Orthop Res. 2003;21(4):597–603. doi:10.1016/s0736-0266(03)00027-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoogendoorn WE, van Poppel MN, Bongers PM, Koes BW, Bouter LM. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain. Spine. 2000;25(16):2114–25.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Osti OL, Vernon-Roberts B, Moore R, Fraser RD. Annular tears and disc degeneration in the lumbar spine. A post-mortem study of 135 discs. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992;74(5):678–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nerlich AG, Schleicher ED, Boos N. 1997 Volvo Award winner in basic science studies. Immunohistologic markers for age-related changes of human lumbar intervertebral discs. Spine. 1997;22(24):2781–95.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Setton LA, Chen J. Cell mechanics and mechanobiology in the intervertebral disc. Spine. 2004;29(23):2710–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ishihara H, McNally DS, Urban JP, Hall AC. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on matrix synthesis in different regions of the intervertebral disk. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996;80(3):839–46.Google Scholar
- Chiu JJ, Chien S. Effects of disturbed flow on vascular endothelium: pathophysiological basis and clinical perspectives. Physiol Rev. 2011;91(1):327–87. doi:10.1152/physrev.00047.2009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gilbert HT, Hoyland JA, Millward-Sadler SJ. The response of human anulus fibrosus cells to cyclic tensile strain is frequency-dependent and altered with disc degeneration. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62(11):3385–94. doi:10.1002/art.27643.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pfirrmann CW, Metzdorf A, Zanetti M, Hodler J, Boos N. Magnetic resonance classification of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine. 2001;26(17):1873–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Farokhzad OC, Khademhosseini A, Jon S, Hermmann A, Cheng J, Chin C, et al. Microfluidic system for studying the interaction of nanoparticles and microparticles with cells. Anal Chem. 2005;77(17):5453–9. doi:10.1021/ac050312q.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Le Maitre CL, Hoyland JA, Freemont AJ. Catabolic cytokine expression in degenerate and herniated human intervertebral discs: IL-1beta and TNFalpha expression profile. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(4):R77. doi:10.1186/ar2275.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gaver 3rd DP, Kute SM. A theoretical model study of the influence of fluid stresses on a cell adhering to a microchannel wall. Biophys J. 1998;75(2):721–33. doi:10.1016/s0006-3495(98)77562-9.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neidlinger-Wilke C, Galbusera F, Pratsinis H, Mavrogonatou E, Mietsch A, Kletsas D, et al. Mechanical loading of the intervertebral disc: from the macroscopic to the cellular level. Eur Spine J. 2014;23 Suppl 3:S333–43. doi:10.1007/s00586-013-2855-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roberts S, Caterson B, Menage J, Evans EH, Jaffray DC, Eisenstein SM. Matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanase: their role in disorders of the human intervertebral disc. Spine. 2000;25(23):3005–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hee HT, Zhang J, Wong HK. An in vitro study of dynamic cyclic compressive stress on human inner annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus cells. Spine J. 2010;10(9):795–801. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2010.06.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Archambault JM, Elfervig-Wall MK, Tsuzaki M, Herzog W, Banes AJ. Rabbit tendon cells produce MMP-3 in response to fluid flow without significant calcium transients. J Biomech. 2002;35(3):303–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Battie MC, Videman T. Lumbar disc degeneration: epidemiology and genetics. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88 Suppl 2:3–9. doi:10.2106/jbjs.e.01313.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bazrgari B, Shirazi-Adl A, Arjmand N. Analysis of squat and stoop dynamic liftings: muscle forces and internal spinal loads. Eur Spine J. 2007;16(5):687–99. doi:10.1007/s00586-006-0240-7.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar